National Strategy

The National Strategy is a well conceived, well produced and comprehensive document. It breaks down the tasks needed to be achieved to win the “war on wildlife crime”. The law enforcement aspects of this plan are being well implemented and are now giving impressive results. To achieve a full “victory” the full complement of issues need to be address. The Program/Outcome/Output section of the Strategy includes 46 paragraphs of which 35 would logically have a connection to the private sector (75%!) and some primarily so.

Programme Objective 1. National and sub-national capacity for intelligence-informed, highly coordinated law enforcement

Outcome 1.1: Focused coordination at national level with a focus on intelligence-led, targeted preventative efforts increases avoided crime rates. UAV surveillance, DNA analysis, Export scanning and many other services can be provided by private sector

Output 1.1.1: National Assessment using ICCWC’s Wildlife and Forestry Crime Analytic Toolkit.

Output 1.1.2: A national wildlife crime unit established within the MNRT, resourced and trained for intelligence management and transfer for improved cooperation between TANAPA and WD, the National and Transnational Serious Crimes Unit (National Task Force-NTF) and the CITES ivory task force. Opportunities and could be forwarded from PSAPI stakeholder to WCU. 

Output 1.1.3: Tasking and Coordination Groups established in key ecosystem-level poaching hotspots and resourced for leading intelligence-led law enforcement in support of WD rangers (KDUs, GRs), NP Rangers, NCAA Rangers and Local Government Rangers and reporting to national WCU. Support of private concession operators with these responsibilities and community relations for village based operations could both be augmented by PSAPI.

Output 1.1.4: Capacity and Training Support to WD staff anti-poaching units incorporating creating necessary linkages to the Tasking and Coordination Groups. As in 1.1.3 some of these are private operators who could be supported.

Output 1.1.5: Intensive, collaborative law enforcement operation across all poaching hotspots, common transport routes and country exit/entry points. Transport is for the most part a private sector operation Busses and truckers both have associations that could be used for positive results.

Outcome 1.2: Higher risk of successful conviction and strong penalties deters criminal activity

Output 1.2.1: Strengthened judiciary capacity at district level for higher conviction success rates and a stronger deterrent against poaching. Some private supporting technical services could augment production of good evidence.

Output 1.2.2: Legislative/policy framework strengthened for greater support against environmental crime. Teamwork with Private sector would hugely strengthen this aspect.

 Outcome 1.3: Strengthened capacity for ground-level wildlife protection in and around Protected Areas. Many of these operations are managed by private entities.

Output 1.3.1: Improved NP and GR wildlife crime law enforcement through empowerment of rangers and the use of specialized technology. As regards to technology as should by the UAV opportunity the Private sector is already and should be in the future a major element.

Output 1.3.2: Improved mechanisms for monitoring wildlife and applying data to support intelligence. This issue relates to the private sector in the same manner as 1.3.1

Output 1.3.3: Effective funds management and increased revenue generation for wildlife conservation and management. Participation of the private sector with its huge base and international reach will certainly vastly augment funding opportunity.

Output 1.3.4: Improved collaboration between government, private sector (e.g. tourism companies) and NGOs with regards to wildlife protection and management. The PSAPI & TPSF structure is the only and logical structure to achieve this goal.

Outcome 1.4: Increased capacity for detection of smuggled wildlife products leads to increased rate of interception As above re technology.

Output 1.4.1: Greater resources at all border and customs points for detecting smuggled goods. Port scanners would be very effective when deployed as private services.

Output 1.4.2: Support UNODC in implementation of UNODC Container Control Programme in priority border points.

Output 1.4.3: Forensics analysis laboratory established and operating within WCU, supporting DNA intelligence management and evidence presentation in court.

Outcome 1.5: Improved international collaboration helps to combat illegal wildlife trafficking at all points of the supply chain. The private sector as a network of relations that cover ALL these routes.

Output 1.5.1: Strengthened relations between Tanzania and INTERPOL in order to better collaborate with Asian law enforcement efforts.

Output 1.5.2: Linkages established between the Transnational Organised Crime Unit (TOCU) (currently being established) and the WCU for efficient management of criminal cases of transnational significance.

Output 1.5.3: Strengthened regional collaboration both within East Africa and between all elephant range countries across Africa for law enforcement.

Output 1.5.4: Greater intelligence and control of the entire transport chain.

Outcome 1.6: Infrastructural Development for enhanced law enforcement in and around Protected Areas

Output 1.6.1: Strengthen Protected Area infrastructure to enhance patrols by rangers and reduce inadvertent encroachment into PAs. This will require effective and participatory interaction with villagers and concession holders. Two areas where the TPSF & PSAPI model will be very effective.

1.6.2: Improved welfare of law enforcement officers and communities surrounding PAs. Participatory and consensus based plans will do this best and these would be well conceived with PSAPI input.

Programme Objective 2. Improving rural livelihoods through enhanced community-based management of natural resources.


Outcome 2.1. Community involvement in wildlife crime law enforcement activities supports i) reduction of wildlife crime, ii) local income generation, and iii) improvement of relationships between communities and governments. This point is central to the PSAPI concept.

Output 2.1.1: Community-based monitoring networks established and operationalized in each poaching hotspot district, to support the WCU and TCGs in information gathering. This point is central to the PSAPI concept


Outcome 2.2: WMAs are supported to operate at their maximum potential, providing significant financial and social benefits to local communities through the sustainable management of natural resources This point is central to the PSAPI concept

Output 2.2.1: Capacity strengthened for local governance of WMAs This point is central to the PSAPI concept

Output 2.2.2: Macro-governance capacity of WMAs improved. This point is central to the PSAPI concept

Output 2.2.3: Economic and enterprise opportunities and implementation enhanced in WMAs. This point is central to the PSAPI concept

Output 2.2.4: Assessment of the Current Status of all Game Controlled Areas in Tanzania. PSAPI could be effective in developing this concept.

Outcome 2.3: Human-wildlife conflict mitigation reduces losses experienced by communities, therefore enabling a purely positive relationship between communities and wildlife PSAPI could be effective in developing this concept.

Output 2.3.1: Human-wildlife conflict prevention measures developed through participatory process and piloted to establish most effective measure. PSAPI could be effective in developing this concept.

Output 2.3.2: Human-wildlife conflict response measures developed through participatory process and piloted to establish most effective measure. PSAPI could be effective in developing this concept.

Output 2.3.3: Human-wildlife conflict consolation payment and monitoring .

Programme Objective 3. Awareness raising in supply, transit and destination countries helps to both change attitudes towards wildlife crime and build international support. The private sector has connections in ALL market destinations and could certainly positively participate here.

 Outcome 3.1: Increased awareness of biodiversity conservation and environmental crime amongst general public in Tanzania reduces willing involvement in illegal wildlife trafficking PSAPI could be effective in developing this concept.

Output 3.1.1: Awareness campaigns targeting the supply side of wildlife trafficking conducted using a variety of measures to reach a wide audience. PSAPI could be effective in developing this concept.

Outcome 3.2. Consumer demand is reduced through strengthened relationships between source and consumer countries and increased awareness amongst citizens of consumer countries PSAPI could be effective in developing this concept.

Output 3.2.1: Improved relations between diplomatic communities of source and consumer countries.

Output 3.2.2: Support given to country governments to conduct awareness campaigns and consumer research. PSAPI could be effective in developing this concept.

Outcome 3.3. Donor support is leveraged through strong publicity of illegal wildlife trafficking issues in Tanzania and within Africa PSAPI could be effective in developing this concept.

Output 3.3.1: Ensure Tanzania’s participation in all international events regarding anti-poaching, wildlife crime or other related issues in order to increase publicity amongst developed countries and leverage donor support. PSAPI could be effective in developing this concept.

Output 3.3.2: Develop and maintain continuous publicity for illegal wildlife trafficking and its impacts. Private sector coordination and support should be central here.